The Ngorongoro Crater Geosite is one of the top famous geosite, referred to as one of the eighth wonder of the World, the largest unbroken caldera in the World, and one of the seven natural wonders in Africa in the boundary limit.
The crater has been formed by collapse of volcano, 25 million years ago when the Rift Valley geology was formed. Its formation resulted in an expansive caldera, surrounded by a ring of hills. The believed remains of the volcano peak ‘Round table’, Ngoitoktok spring (Plate 1), Mwandusi and Gorigor swamps beautify the Crater.
Plate 1: Ngoitoktok spring, the attractive picnic site in Ngorongoro Crater geo-site
Within the crater, there is a lake of molten rock ‘Lake Magadi’ a home to thousands flocks of lesser and greater flamingoes and other bird species. The Munge River originates from Olmoti crater feeds the saline lake in the main Crater.
The crater is inhabited by a variety of and supports very high densities of wildlife species, such as elephants, black rhinos, buffaloes, lion (Plate 2), eland, wildebeest and gazelles. There are other large carnivores, such as lion and hyaena. The crater geosite has a diversity of vegetation cover; swamps and marshes, short grasslands, long grasslands, shrublands, woodlands and thick forests especially on the southern rim.
Plate 2: Lion (Left) and Buffalo (Right) in the Ngorongoro Crater